Miscarriage is a premature termination of pregnancy that has lasted for less than 22 weeks. We may also talk about a miscarriage if the fetus doesn’t weight more than 500 grams. One of the frequent causes of miscarriages are developmental defects of the fetus. It is estimated that approx. 20% of premature terminations of pregnancy are the so-called spontaneous miscarriages.
The most common causes of miscarriages
The causes of miscarriage, or losing a pregnancy, can vary. Among the ones listed most often are: genetic, anatomical, immunological, hormonal and infectious factors. There is also a large group of miscarriages without any explainable origin. These are referred to as idiomatic miscarriages. When talking about the genetic causes of miscarriages, one could especially mention the incorrect number of chromosomes.
Spontaneous miscarriages are also caused by Anatomical reasons. These include congenital defects of the uterus related to menstrual disorders that have a negative impact on the embryo implantation process. Other anatomical causes responsible for early miscarriages are intrauterine adhesions and cervical failures. Immunological causes are also pointed at, although they play a minor role during the early losses of pregnancy.
The next group of causes is the hormonal causes, which constitute about 5% of causes of recurring miscarriages. The infectious factors are the least responsible for miscarriages. However, pregnant women get routinely tested for toxoplasmosis, rubella and the herpes virus.
Symptoms of miscarriage
There are two basic clinical symptoms of a miscarriage: Bleeding and pain. The earliest symptom of miscarriage is staining, in which case it is suggested to conduct the necessary tests with the doctor. It is a basic procedure that allows to determine the characteristic of bleeding in early pregnancy. If the bleeding is abundant then it might indicate a partial placental abruption. The pain is of paroxysmal nature, with different stages of severity. Most of the time women feel it around their lower abdomen or around their lower back.
No matter in which week of pregnancy a woman lost her baby – the medical personnel should provide her with adequate Medical care and required psychological support. Sadly, the least attention is still focused on the mental state of a woman after miscarriage. Meanwhile, losing a pregnancy Exposes women to such emotions as: shock, denial, wrath, anger, guilt and helplessness.
In many cases, women affected by a miscarriage suffer from depression, especially if they aren’t provided with adequate support from those around them. They may also develop an anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. That’s what makes it so important to put more and more emphasis on providing standards for care for women who lose their pregnancy due to miscarriage.
Habitual, or recurring miscarriages
Habitual, or recurring miscarriages affect about 2% of women. This term refers to three or more subsequent losses of early pregnancies. It is estimated that recurring miscarriages constitute about 5% of all spontaneous miscarriages. Research shows that the course of the first pregnancy is not without an impact on the subsequent pregnancies.
In a woman that has already miscarried once, the threshold rises as high as up to 20 percent. The risk accumulates with the number of miscarriages and is connected to the woman’s age. Most women lose pregnancy at an early stage of its development. Recurrent miscarriages are very stressful to a woman.
Especially since their cause is hard to determine or might arise from a combination of several factors. That’s why it is so important in the medical procedure to not only diagnose it but to also approach the patient empathetically. In case of diagnosis, it is important to determine the age of the fetus, the time of death and to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the gynecological and obstetrical history.